Fast Five Quiz: Syncopal Events

Richard H. Sinert, DO

Disclosures

January 30, 2020

Situational syncope is essentially a reproducible vasovagal syncope with a known precipitant. Micturition, defecation, deglutition, tussive, and carotid sinus syncope are types of situational syncope. These stimuli result in autonomic reflexes with a vasodepressor response, ultimately leading to transient cerebral hypotension. These are not life-threatening but can cause morbidity. The treatment involves avoidance of the precipitant when possible and initiation of countermaneuvers when anticipated.

Ventricular arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes, tend to occur in older patients with known cardiac disease. These patients tend to have fewer recurrences and have a more sudden onset with few, if any, presyncopal symptoms. Associated chest pain or dyspnea may be present. This type of syncope is generally unrelated to posture and can occur during lying, sitting, or standing. Often, these arrhythmias are not revealed on the initial ECG but may be captured with prolonged monitoring.

Cardiac outflow obstruction may also result in sudden-onset syncope with little or no prodrome. One critical clue is the exertional nature, and the other is the presence of a cardiac murmur. Young athletes may present with this etiology for syncope. Specific pathology includes aortic stenosis, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, mitral stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary embolus, left atrial myxoma, and pericardial tamponade.

Vasovagal syncope is the most common type in young adults but can occur at any age. It usually occurs in a standing position and is precipitated by fear, emotional stress, or pain (eg, after a needlestick). Autonomic symptoms are predominant. Classically, nausea, diaphoresis, fading or "graying out" of vision, epigastric discomfort, and light-headedness precede syncope by a few minutes. The syncope is thought to occur secondary to efferent vasodepressor reflexes by several mechanisms, resulting in decreased peripheral vascular resistance. It is not life-threatening and occurs sporadically.

Read more about the etiology of syncope.

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