Fast Five Quiz: Iron Deficiency and Anemia in Heart Failure

Arnold S. Baas, MD; Jeff Hsu, MD


March 15, 2021

Figure 1. Heart failure in a patient with anemia.

Anemia in patients with heart failure has a multifactorial etiology. The highest risk for anemia is seen in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus, older age, and more advanced disease.

Anemia is a high-output state that can precipitate the clinical presentation of heart failure due to increased myocardial oxygen consumption and demand beyond what the heart can provide. Other high-output states that may trigger the clinical presentation of heart failure include:

  • Thyrotoxicosis

  • Myxedema

  • Paget disease of bone

  • Albright syndrome

  • Multiple myeloma

  • Glomerulonephritis

  • Cor pulmonale

  • Polycythemia vera

  • Obesity

  • Carcinoid syndrome

  • Pregnancy

  • Nutritional deficiencies (eg, thiamine deficiency, beriberi)

Learn more about the management of heart failure in patients with comorbidities.


Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.