Fast Five Quiz: Unusual Breast Cancer Presentations

Pavani Chalasani, MD, MPH; Maurie Markman, MD


March 26, 2020

To date, only the uPA/PAI1 marker has met the criteria of the Tumor Marker Utility Grading System for its prognostic value as a biomarker in patients with breast cancer. However, because this test is not yet routinely used in clinical practice, physicians rely on prognostic indicators of lymph node metastases, tumor size, and tumor grade.

Although testing for ERBB2 status (also referred to as "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]") has become routine in clinical practice owing to the availability of targeted treatment, it has improved prognosis. Although some research has been performed on disseminated tumor cells, their prognostic value in patients with breast cancer remains uncertain. Similarly, recent studies have shown an association between MMP1 and MMP9 and breast cancer metastasis; however, the presence of these proteins does not provide specific prognostic information.

Read more about biomarkers for breast cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology.


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