Fast Five Quiz: Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD

Disclosures

January 14, 2021

Data suggest the moderate weight gain commonly associated with smoking cessation does not detract from its benefits for CVD risk reduction. For example, an observational study found that despite a mean weight increase of 7.9 lb (3.6 kg) among recent (< 4 years) quitters, smoking cessation still conveyed a decreased risk for CHD compared with current smokers.

A Joint Scientific Statement on the prevention of CVD among individuals with diabetes from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) notes that such nutritional patterns as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean, low-fat, or monitored carbohydrate diet are effective for regulating glucose and decreasing CVD risk factors. In addition, moderation of alcohol intake, avoidance of unhealthy fats and sugars, regular physical activity, and weight management have been shown to reduce triglycerides by 20%-50%, which are often elevated in persons with diabetes.

Data on the impact of dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, B vitamins, or fatty acid on CVD risk reduction among individuals with T2D have been inconsistent. Some studies have shown CVD risk reduction when supplements are added to a healthy diet, but there are no large-scale, randomized trials in patients with T2D.

Evidence-based nutritional guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes have been issued, including those from Diabetes UK and the ADA. In addition, recent guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommend a Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil and/or nuts to reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events, based on results from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study showing that such a diet reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events among high-risk individuals, including those with diabetes.

Learn more about interventions to reduce CVD risk in T2D.

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