Fast Five Quiz: Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF)

Yasmine S. Ali, MD


June 10, 2021

Elevated jugular venous pressure is generally the most reliable indicator of fluid volume overload in older patients, warranting thorough evaluation.

In cases of mild HF, patients may appear to be in no distress after a few minutes of rest, but become obviously dyspneic with moderate activity.

Edema is a cardinal manifestation of HF, although it does not correlate well with the systemic venous pressure. Usually, a substantial gain in extracellular fluid volume is required before peripheral edema develops.

Hydrothorax, usually bilateral, is observed most commonly in patients with hypertension involving both the systemic and the pulmonary circulation. Dyspnea usually intensifies when hydrothorax develops, owing to further reductions in vital capacity.

Learn more about the clinical presentation of HF.


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