Fast Five Quiz: Causes of Heart Failure

Yasmine S. Ali, MD; Jeffrey J. Hsu, MD


December 13, 2022

Heart failure (HF) is approaching epidemic proportions globally, and increasing burden and costs are projected over the next two decades. Currently, HF affects > 64 million individuals worldwide. Estimates suggest that the economic burden of HF has exceeded $346 billion as of 2020. HF is a complex clinical syndrome that is associated with sex, socioeconomic, and ethnic differences. HF results from several different etiologic pathways, each affected by widespread individual, clinical, and environmental risk factors. HF develops when an abnormality in cardiac function prevents the heart from pumping blood at a rate proportionate to the requirements of the metabolizing tissues, or when the heart can only do so with an elevated diastolic filling pressure. Despite improvements in medical and device therapy, the morbidity and mortality associated with HF remain high. Preventive interventions are therefore urgently warranted.

How much do you know about the causes of HF? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz.


Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.