Chronic CD4+T cell depletion or loss leads to the pathogenicity of HIV. Without treatment, PLWH are predisposed to opportunistic infections, chronic inflammation, and malignancies. Chronic inflammatory conditions are correlated to increased levels of viremia and accelerated disease progression. Chronic immune activation is a better predictor of disease outcome than plasma viral load.
Timing matters; early initiation of ART can reduce the likelihood of health issues linked to inflammation, such as cardiovascular events, kidney disease, and some cancers. It has also been shown to have modest but significant improvements on self-assessed quality of life in PLWH who are ART-naïve compared with PLWH who defer early ART treatment. Adherence to ART is also crucially important. Anything < 100% adherence to ART has been linked to higher concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers. Thus, the maximization of ART adherence could improve chronic inflammation and its negative long-term consequences.
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Cite this: Michael Stuart Bronze, Enrico Brunetti. Fast Five Quiz: HIV Infection and Inflammation - Medscape - Aug 10, 2023.