Fast Five Quiz: Heart Failure Comorbidities

Ioana Dumitru, MD; Jeffrey J. Hsu, MD


December 09, 2022

Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with HF and is associated with poor clinical status and worse outcomes. The RED-HF clinical trial suggested that correcting anemia with ESAs usually does not improve outcomes and increases the risk for thromboembolic events. Therefore, ESAs are not recommended in the absence of other indications for the management of anemia in patients with HF.

International guidelines recommend the use of beta-blockers in patients with HF. Beta-blockers have been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalization, induce reverse remodeling of the left ventricle, and increase survival in patients with HFrEF.

Systemic corticosteroids may increase sodium and water retention, but inhaled corticosteroids are typically not associated with such effects in patients with HF and COPD.

According to the 2021 ESC guidelines, thiazolidinediones are not recommended in patients with HF due to the increased risk of worsening HF and hospitalizations. As of now, there is no evidence that DPP-4 inhibitors provide cardiovascular benefit; in fact, in patients with diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, some DPP-4 inhibitors could increase the risk for hospitalization for HF.

For additional information, refer to the following clinical practice guidelines:

  • 2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic HF: Developed by the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic HF of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). With the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

  • 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines

  • 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure

Learn more about HF.


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