Known risk factors for developing herpes zoster relate to the status of cell-mediated immunity to VZV. Risk factors in children and adults include the following:
VZV-specific immunity and cell-mediated immunity, which generally declines with age
Immunosuppression (eg, by HIV infection or AIDS)
Primary VZV infection in utero or in early infancy, when the normal immune response is decreased
Anti–tumor necrosis factor alpha agents (may pose an increased risk)
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Acute lymphocytic leukemia and other cancers
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Research indicates that patients with IBD are at significantly increased risk for herpes zoster. In an analysis of more than 108,000 patients with IBD and 430,000 matched controls, the overall annual incidence per 100,000 person-years was 734 among those with IBD compared with 437 in the other group. The elevated risk in patients with IBD remained after adjustment for comorbidities and other factors.
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Cite this: William James. Fast Five Quiz: Herpes Zoster Facts vs Fiction - Medscape - Sep 22, 2021.