Skill Checkup: A Woman With Long‐standing Hypertension and Worsening Dyspnea on Exertion

Yasmine S. Ali, MD; Jeffrey J. Hsu, MD


December 20, 2022

The patient's gender and comorbidities increase the likelihood of developing HFpEF.

Women are disproportionately affected by HFpEF, outnumbering men by a 2:1 ratio. Sex-specific maladaptations to hypertensive aging in women may underlie the greater risk for HFpEF. HFrEF mostly occurs in men and is partly the consequence of cardiomyocyte loss. In contrast, HFpEF is often diagnosed in older women with a cluster of comorbidities, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, anemia, pulmonary disease, and kidney disease.


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