Adverse cytogenetic abnormalities: hypodiploidy, t(4;14), del (17p), amp(1q21)
High beta-2 microglobulin level (≥ 5.5 mg/L) or low albumin (< 3.5 mg/dL)
Circulating plasma cells
Aggressive clinical features (ie, rapid onset of clinical symptoms; extensive disease at relapse based on workup findings; disease-associated organ dysfunction at relapse including renal failure, hypercalcemia or bone event)
Short duration of response and progression while on therapy are also associated with adverse outcomes in multiple myeloma.
Learn more about the prognosis of multiple myeloma.
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Cite this: Maria-Victoria Mateos. Fast Five Quiz: Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma - Medscape - Jan 11, 2022.