Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a syndrome that involves a group of iatrogenic movement disorders caused by antagonism of dopamine receptors. In most cases, these dyskinetic disorders are brought on by chronic use of antipsychotic medications; however, various other medications are also associated with TD. At least 20% of all patients who are treated with first-generation neuroleptics are believed to have TD. Women are at higher risk for TD than men, particularly middle-aged to senior women. Among patients who are postmenopausal, TD incidence rates are as high as 30% after almost a year of exposure to antipsychotic medications, which suggests that estrogen may have a protective effect. Older patients (> 55 years) of both genders are also more likely to develop TD than younger patients.
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Cite this: Christoph U. Correll. Fast Five Quiz: Tardive Dyskinesia Causes and Associated Conditions - Medscape - Aug 18, 2023.