Anxiolytics include several types of medications used to treat anxiety disorders. Of the anxiolytics, barbiturates (which are rarely used for this indication) are most often associated with TD. In clinical practice, barbiturates have largely been replaced by benzodiazepines. Fast withdrawal from benzodiazepines can lead to withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia, which is a reversible form of TD.
Mood stabilizers are used to treat bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. They comprise lithium, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotic drugs. In patients taking antipsychotics, the incidence of TD is much higher when lithium is used in combination with the antipsychotic drugs.
Individuals with mood disorders, including bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, who are taking antipsychotic drugs seem to develop TD sooner and at lower dosages than individuals who are diagnosed with schizophrenia and are receiving these agents. In addition, TD symptoms may emerge more quickly in this patient population than in patients with other mental disorders.
Learn more about the etiology of TD.
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Cite this: Christoph U. Correll. Fast Five Quiz: Tardive Dyskinesia Causes and Associated Conditions - Medscape - Aug 18, 2023.