Fast Five Quiz: Assessment of Tardive Dyskinesia

Christoph U. Correll, MD


January 19, 2022

Figure 1. An antipsychotic drug contained in a vial in injectable form. This medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute psychosis, mania, delirium, tics in Tourette syndrome, agitation and severe anxiety. Tardive dyskinesia can result from taking it.

Specific TDs stemming from long-term use of dopamine antagonists include orofacial dyskinesia, tardive akathisia, tardive blepharospasm, tardive dystonia, tardive myoclonus, and tardive tics, all of which may even occur concurrently. Tardive akathisia is manifested by repetitive tapping, squirming, and marching movements, or by a sense of inner restlessness and the inability to remain still. It can arise as the dopamine antagonist dose is decreased after long-term treatment.

Tardive dystonia presents as fixed posturing of the face and neck (eg, anterocollis, retrocollis, torticollis), extremities, or trunk. It may be localized, affecting one or more body parts, or be generalized.

Tardive blepharospasm refers to the presence of repetitive sustained contractions of the orbicularis oculi that have lasted for at least 1 month and that developed during or within 3 months of the withdrawal of treatment with dopamine antagonists (in the absence of other disease or familial causes). Symptoms of tardive blepharospasm fluctuate.

Tardive tourettism is similar to Tourette syndrome and presents during or after treatment with dopamine antagonists. It usually has its onset in individuals older than 21 years and is characterized by frequent, multiple motor and vocal tics, echolalia, echopraxia, coprolalia, and copropraxia.

Learn more about TDs from use long-term dopamine antagonists.


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