Insulin resistance is an impaired biological response to insulin, producing an imbalance in glucose metabolism. This leads to a compensatory increase in the production of insulin that may result in numerous metabolic consequences, including chronic hyperglycemia, which in turn triggers an inflammatory response that may result in cell damage.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a combination of peripheral insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. However, the pathophysiologic role of excess glucagon cannot be underestimated. Type 2 diabetes is an islet paracrinopathy in which the reciprocal relationship between the glucagon-secreting alpha cell and the insulin-secreting beta cell is lost, leading to hyperglucagonemia followed by the resultant hyperglycemia.
As glucose tolerance progresses from normal to abnormal, postprandial blood glucose levels increase first. In time, fasting hyperglycemia develops.
Learn more about the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
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Cite this: Anne L. Peters, Romesh Khardori. Fast Five Quiz: Hyperglycemia Associated With Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape - Jun 28, 2023.