Crohn's disease, ileal resection, or other diseases of the ileum decrease bile salt reabsorption and increase the risk for gallstone formation.
Cholesterol gallstones are more common in women, individuals of European or Native American ancestry, and older people. Other risk factors include:
Rapid weight loss
Total parenteral nutrition
Black pigment gallstones occur disproportionately in individuals with high heme turnover. Disorders of hemolysis associated with pigment gallstones include sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, and beta-thalassemia. About half of all cirrhotic patients have pigment gallstones.
Brown pigment gallstones are not common in the United States. However, in rice-growing regions of East Asia, infestation with biliary flukes may produce biliary strictures and predispose to formation of brown pigment gallstones throughout intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. This condition, termed hepatolithiasis, causes recurrent cholangitis and predisposes to biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma.
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Cite this: B.S. Anand. Fast Five Quiz: Gallbladder Disease - Medscape - Dec 08, 2021.