Skill Checkup: A 69‐Year‐Old Woman With Acutely Worsening Heart Failure

Marco Guazzi, MD, PhD


March 21, 2022

The definition of iron deficiency in HF differs from that for some other conditions of chronic inflammation. Currently, for HF, iron deficiency is defined as ferritin < 100 µg/L or ferritin 100-299 µg/L with a TSAT < 20%. The diagnosis based on ferritin and TSAT may be inadequate in advanced disease or acute HF, when ferritin becomes an unreliable marker. Iron deficiency can therefore be underdiagnosed in such patients, so there is a need to identify additional and more reliable biomarkers.


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