Malignant melanoma is the fifth most common cancer, with an estimated 106,110 new cases in the United States in 2021. The incidence of malignant melanoma has been on the rise globally and trails only lung cancer in women in terms of the rate of increase. Melanoma develops from atypically transformed melanocytes whose fetal precursor cells originate from the neural crest. The most frequently hyperactivated pathways in this form of cancer are the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. RAS-RAF pathway alterations are often seen in cutaneous melanoma, with approximately half harboring oncogenic driver mutations in BRAF, nearly 30% harboring NRAS mutations, and about 15% harboring mutations in NF1. BRAF V600E/K mutations are the most common abnormality in the BRAF gene.
Are you up-to-date on genetic/biomarker testing in melanoma? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz.
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Cite this: Adil Daud. Fast Five Quiz: Genetic/Biomarker Testing in Melanoma - Medscape - Feb 22, 2022.