The umbrella review included 42 systematic reviews with meta-analyses; these were predominantly supported by observational evidence rather than randomized trials. Statistically significant associations with PPI use were reported by the most comprehensive studies for several outcomes, including:
Fractures (risk ratio [RR] = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.14-1.28; n = 2,103,800)
Kidney disease (RR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.16-2.22; n = 2,396,640)
Infections (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.73-2.30; n = 356,683)
Gastric cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.74-3.85; n = 943,070)
Gastrointestinal events (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.42-4.27; n = 40,218)
The research found no associations with neurologic disease or nongastric cancers and found conflicting evidence for cardiovascular outcomes.
Learn more about commonly used PPIs.
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Cite this: Mary L. Windle. Rapid Rx Quiz: Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) - Medscape - Feb 22, 2022.