In patients with diabetes, consistently elevated levels of glucose result in excess insulin production by the fetus. Fetal hyperinsulinemia can affect lung maturity and alter the synthesis of lung surfactant, increasing the risk for respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress is higher in patients with an elective cesarean section, which is common among patients with diabetes, compared with patients with exposure to labor. In addition, maternal glucose supply is abruptly ended at delivery but hyperinsulinemia continues. This may result in hypoglycemia shortly after birth.
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Cite this: Anne L. Peters, Romesh Khardori. Fast Five Quiz: Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy - Medscape - Jun 28, 2023.