The newborn is at risk for respiratory distress, as well as hypoglycemia. In women with diabetes, consistently elevated levels of glucose result in excess insulin production by the fetus. Fetal hyperinsulinemia can affect lung maturity and alter the synthesis of lung surfactant, increasing the risk for respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress is higher in women with an elective cesarean section, which is common among women with diabetes, compared with women with exposure to labor. In addition, maternal glucose supply is abruptly ended at delivery, but hyperinsulinemia continues. This may result in hypoglycemia shortly after birth.
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Cite this: Anne L. Peters. Fast Five Quiz: Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy - Medscape - May 11, 2022.