Fast Five Quiz: Hemorrhoids Practice Essentials

B.S. Anand, MD

Disclosures

April 18, 2022

The term "hemorrhoid" is usually related to the symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are present in healthy individuals. In fact, hemorrhoidal columns exist in utero. Risk factors and causes of symptomatic hemorrhoids include:

  • Spinal cord injury

  • Decreased venous return

  • Straining and constipation

  • Chronic diarrhea

  • Pregnancy

  • Lack of erect posture

  • Familial tendency

  • Higher socioeconomic status

  • Chronic diarrhea

  • Colon cancer

  • Hepatic disease

  • Obesity

  • Elevated anal resting pressure

  • Loss of rectal muscle tone

  • Rectal surgery

  • Episiotomy

  • Anal intercourse

  • Inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease

Alcohol consumption and the use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have not been established as risk factors for hemorrhoids. Although some studies have found that obesity — which may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes  — is a risk factor for hemorrhoid development, type 2 diabetes on its own has not been clearly established as a risk factor for hemorrhoids.

Learn more about the etiology and pathophysiology of hemorrhoids.

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