Fast Five Quiz: Menopause and Hormone Therapy

Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG


September 01, 2022

Breakthrough bleeding is common in women taking HT and is owing to high progesterone-to-estrogen ratios within the first year, per Mehta and colleagues. It is often a factor deterring women from starting or continuing HT. Breakthrough bleeding is more often observed with transdermal formulations. To control bleeding intervals, dose adjustments may be needed.

Multiple studies have found that HT with estrogen and progesterone may increase the risk for breast cancer; the longer the duration of use, the higher the risks are. Although the excess risk is small, it should be weighed against HT benefits.

Other side effects of HT include:

  • Nausea

  • Bloating

  • Weight gain

  • Fluid retention

  • Mood swings

  • Breast tenderness

Learn more about menopausal HT.


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