Fast Five Quiz: Dry Eye Disease (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca) Etiology and Pathophysiology

Christina R. Prescott, MD, PhD


November 10, 2022

According to Chiang and colleagues, primary lacrimal gland deficiencies in non–SS-related aqueous-deficient dry eye that may impair aqueous production include:

  • Idiopathic

  • Age-related dry eye

  • Congenital alacrima (eg, Riley-Day syndrome)

  • Familial dysautonomia

The underlying cause of primary SS aqueous-deficient dry eye is unknown.

Secondary SS may be associated with:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

  • Psoriatic arthritis

  • Primary biliary cirrhosis

  • Interstitial nephritis

  • Polymyositis

  • Dermatomyositis

  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis)

  • Polyarteritis nodosa

  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

  • Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis

  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • Hypergammaglobulinemia

  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia

Learn more about the etiology of aqueous-deficient dry eye.


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