Fast Five Quiz: Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis and Workup

Christopher Luzzio, MD


November 22, 2022

MS has a heterogeneous presentation comprising a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Facial myokymia (irregular twitching of the facial muscles) can be a presenting symptom.

Depression is common in patients with MS even in early stages of the disease. While a multifactorial etiology has been theorized for depression and depressive symptoms in patients with MS, a review by Masuccio and colleagues published in 2021 suggests that depression itself may be a symptom with a neurobiological basis rather than the consequence of the disability derived from the neurologic impairment associated with MS.

Aphasia very seldomly occurs in patients with MS, per Lazio and colleagues.

Cognitive impairment, such as difficulties in processing speed, attention, learning, memory, and executive functioning, has been shown to affect up to 70% of patients with MS. Although more severe cognitive impairment is seen in secondary progressive MS (SPMS), signs of cognitive involvement can be present early in the disease course.

Learn more about the clinical presentation of MS.


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