Fast Five Quiz: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Practice Essentials

B.S. Anand, MD


February 06, 2023

According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, people with diabetes are at higher risk for GERD. Researchers included nine eligible articles involving 9067 cases and 81,968 controls. They identified a significant association between diabetes and the risk for GERD (overall odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.36-1.91; P = .003) on the basis of the random-effects model. The result persisted in studies involving populations from Eastern countries (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38-2.12; P = .003) and in younger patients (mean age < 50 years) (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.37; P = .001) based on subgroup analyses.

Other risk factors known to be associated with GERD include:

  • Age 50 years or older

  • Alcohol consumption

  • Connective tissue disorders

  • Nicotine or tobacco use

  • Pregnancy

  • Postprandial supination

Nonerosive GERD has been found to be more prevalent in women. Gender differences in associated disease manifestations have also been reported. Epilepsy has not been well-established as a risk factor for GERD. Certain drugs have been associated with the development of GERD; however, beta-blockers are not commonly recognized as one of them.

Learn more about the development of GERD.


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