According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, people with diabetes are at higher risk for GERD. Researchers included nine eligible articles involving 9067 cases and 81,968 controls. They identified a significant association between diabetes and the risk for GERD (overall odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.36-1.91; P = .003) on the basis of the random-effects model. The result persisted in studies involving populations from Eastern countries (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38-2.12; P = .003) and in younger patients (mean age < 50 years) (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.37; P = .001) based on subgroup analyses.
Other risk factors known to be associated with GERD include:
Age 50 years or older
Connective tissue disorders
Nicotine or tobacco use
Nonerosive GERD has been found to be more prevalent in women. Gender differences in associated disease manifestations have also been reported. Epilepsy has not been well-established as a risk factor for GERD. Certain drugs have been associated with the development of GERD; however, beta-blockers are not commonly recognized as one of them.
Learn more about the development of GERD.
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Cite this: B.S. Anand. Fast Five Quiz: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Practice Essentials - Medscape - Feb 06, 2023.