Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes a significant portion of kidney cancer cases and warrants a comprehensive understanding among clinicians. With an annual incidence of approximately 65,000 cases in the United States, RCC ranks as the most common renal tumor in adults. Most RCCs arise from the proximal tubular epithelium, originating within the renal cortex and responsible for 90-95% of all primary renal neoplasms. The most frequent RCC subtypes are clear cell (~70%-80%), papillary cell (~10%-15%), and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (~5%). Although 25% of cases are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, a patient may present with hematuria, fatigue, weight loss, flank pain, and fever.
Diagnosis of RCC relies on ultrasound for initial detection, whereas contrast-enhanced CT and histopathologic analysis help differentiate cystic from solid masses and staging. Surgical resection is the primary treatment for localized disease. Targeted therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved outcomes for patients with advanced or metastatic cases.
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Cite this: Karl J. D'Silva. Rapid Review Quiz: Renal Cell Carcinoma - Medscape - Sep 14, 2023.