Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes a significant proportion of kidney cancers and warrants a comprehensive understanding among clinicians. With an annual incidence of approximately 65,000 cases in the United States, RCC is the most common renal tumor in adults. Most RCCs arise from the proximal tubular epithelium, which originates within the renal cortex and is responsible for 90%-95% of all primary renal neoplasms. Clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type and contains a cytoplasm rich in glycogen and lipids. Although 25% of cases are asymptomatic, a patient may present with hematuria, fatigue, weight loss, flank pain, and fever. The patient may also present with symptoms of hypercalcemia, such as increased thirst, frequent urination, and body aches.
Diagnosis of RCC relies on ultrasound for initial detection. Contrast-enhanced CT and histopathologic analysis help to differentiate cystic from solid masses as well as staging. Surgical resection, including nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy, remains the mainstay treatment for localized disease. For advanced or metastatic cases, targeted therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized management, providing improved outcomes and extending patient survival.
How much do you know about recent advances in the treatment of RCC? Learn more with this brief quiz.
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Cite this: Karl J. D'Silva. Rapid Rx Quiz: Renal Cell Carcinoma - Medscape - Sep 14, 2023.